Essay on The Founding of Imperialism
The foundations of imperialism, which are usually not directed towards any goal, or are aimless, can be for varying reasons. Modern imperialism was generated by aggressive instincts, and the acquiring of weapons, which were created out of necessity.
With the advent of weapons of every sort, the reversion to evolutionary throwback followed, with the war machine now controlling the state apparatus, which created conflicts and situations that it required for sustenance. History records that the Egyptian army was created to drive the Hyksos out of Egypt. The army later subjugated the state and pursued imperialism like the later armies that followed.
This included Alexander the Great who fought wars for personal glory and for plunder. An aggressive temperament is the natural ideology of a war machine.
Nineteenth-century imperialism is visible in its most recent form of export monopolies, for they are dependent on the revenues imposed by their monopolies, without which their monopolies and thereby a source of great revenues would be eliminated by foreign competition.
A prime example is a challenge posed by China to the current monopolies of the western imperialist expansionist designs, such as the American aggression against Iraq and Afghanistan. Capitalism and democracy are generally viewed as the promoters of peace; in fact, they are hostile to imperialism.
If capitalism and democracy are given the opportunity to flourish unabated, then there will be no room for imperialism which will fade away altogether.
Schumpeter states that democracy combined with capitalism will so absorb the energies of people that they will abolish aggressive tendencies. Rational people demand democratic governance. In the entire capitalist world, antagonism is expressed towards expansionism or cabinet diplomacy.
How Does Imperialism Works?
When a nation uses different forms of control to exert authority over another, this is known as imperialism. It defines a system of economic, political, and social dominance whereby one nation subjugates and enslaves another. Economic, cultural, political, moral, and exploratory control are some of imperialism’s driving forces.
The resources of the conquered nation are frequently used by imperialists for personal financial benefit. The Latin word “imperium,” which means “to command,” is where the word “imperialism” originates.
Colonialism and imperialism are closely related in terms of control, but colonialism also includes the extra tactic of the imperial state sending settlers to reside in a colony.
Imperialism Four Categories
Imperialism’s traditional objective is to amass as many resources as it can, frequently by exploitation and expansion through force. As an economic system, imperialism thus “works” for countries that seek to legitimize their invasion or exploitation of other people.
The strategy has often led to the exploitation of material, cultural, and mineral resources from conquered nations. In general, historians divide the justifications for imperialism into four groups:
- Economic: Supporters make the case that collecting commodities like cotton, silk, tobacco, gold, and land, as well as having access to trade routes, are advantageous.
- Cultural: This justification deems certain groups as superior to others, enabling them to dominate over others.
- Politically or strategically: Governments want to dominate as much area as they can in order to bolster their strength and defend themselves from any threats.
- Moral or religious: This motive claims that establishing an alternative religion or government on people, will protect them from the evils of an oppressive one.
Capitalism is associated with peace, and the populace of the capitalist world opposes imperialism. Additionally, there are venues for the prevention of war such as The Hague Court.
For expansionism or war, only those who are responsible for making equipment for war profit, and if expansion is carried out by unbridled trade, and the availability of foreign raw materials is assured to each country without discrimination, then imperialism would have no place in the contemporary world.
Imperial expansion results from the increased growth in population and property, which grow when the citizens know their lives and goods are secure from unauthorized forfeitures’.
Free citizens create large fighting machines and armies and recruit soldiers who fight for public glory and the common good because these are, in fact, their kith and kin.
Modern liberalism carries legacies in that they do not affect liberal states individually, according to whether they are pacifistic or imperialistic, but at the same time.
Examples of Imperialism
The 19th century was the “golden period” of imperialism when European countries ruled vast portions of the globe. Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, Russia, and Great Britain all used imperialism to increase their riches during this time.
Between 1870 and 1900, European nations occupied over 9 million square miles of land in Africa and Asia or about 5% of the planet’s surface. At that time, imperialism affected almost 150 million people.
Yet, imperialism has also happened in other settings. Several historians have compared the United States to an imperial state, despite the fact that this comparison is uncommon.
In 1823, the Monroe Doctrine created the groundwork for continued American meddling in the Western Hemisphere by stating, among other things, that the United States would defend the Americas from European imperialism.
To put an end to Spain’s colonial dominion in the Western Hemisphere, the United States engaged in the Spanish-American War. Spain gave up its claims to Cuba in 1898, and the United States thereafter gained control of Guam and Puerto Rico.
A few years later, it overcame Philippine nationalists and seized control of the country. Colonization was not a part of American expansion into the Philippines and Puerto Rico.
Imperialism vs. Colonialism
The phrases “imperialism” and “colonialism” are sometimes used interchangeably, however, they don’t mean the same thing. Control by one authority over a dependent region or population is known as colonialism, and it frequently entails settling newcomers in another nation.
The Latin term “colonus,” which means farmer, is where it originates. Although they maintain their devotion to their own nation, the settlers aim to reside there permanently.
In the late 19th century, Europeans extended their empires in Africa without meaning to totally occupy it, yet imperialism nonetheless had a terrible impact on that continent.
With many forms of control, imperialism enables one nation to rule over another. If the occupying nation does not send in settlers, it may nevertheless take place without colonialism.
In the late 19th century, Europeans grew their empires in Africa without planning to totally occupy it. It doesn’t lessen the terrible impact imperialism had on Africa, though. Colonization was not a part of American expansion into the Philippines or Puerto Rico.