Essay on The Expectancy Theory of Motivation By Victor Vroom

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Essay on The Expectancy Theory of Motivation By Victor Vroom

Victor Harold‏ Vroom is a business school professor at the Yale School of Management. He made a remarkable contribution to the field of organizational behavior with his research regarding the motivational significance of employees. In the year 1964, Victor Vroom introduced a theory called the “Expectancy Theory” with the help of his research study that took years to complete.

Victor Vroom initially developed the expectation theory of motivation, and it has since become a widely acknowledged explanation for illuminating how people choose between various behavioral options.

Vroom contends that giving someone something to satisfy his basic wants is insufficient to encourage them. A person has to be convinced that he can succeed in getting the reward in order to be motivated.

When an employee values a given outcome highly and believes there is a reasonable likelihood of reaching the intended result, his motivation will rise. According to this concept, every person operates in a way to get a maximum result with the least amount of work.

According to Vroom, a person’s performance is equal to their ability times their job effort. However, Arvey and Dunnet asserted in 1970 that an additive link between aptitude and anticipation is a stronger predictor of performance than a multiplicative one.

They opted to exclude the variable ability because the results seemed to contradict it, and instead anticipate it from the motivating aspect of expectancy theory without utilizing an ability measure.

This yields far more reliable outcomes. When more accurate data of work experience are acquired, it is important to keep in mind the impact of omitted abilities.

What is Expectancy Theory?

The Expectancy Theory is also known as the Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory or VIE Theory. This theory focuses on the motivational aspect of employees behind every decision-making process. This theory is very helpful in organizational management practices.

The approach focuses on using incentive, encouragement, and inspiration as a technique to generate better outcomes from the project teams. Expectancy theory explains the employee’s psychological course of action regarding preferences and choices.

The theory explains the thinking procedures that any employee or worker undergoes while making decisions. Victor Vroom put emphasis on the requirement that enterprises must associate rewards directly with a team’s performance.

He also highlighted that the reward system must be corruption free so that the deserving candidates receive incentives and not the incompetent ones.  Victor Vroom formulated an expression to explain the motivation an individual feels under any given circumstance:

Motivation = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valence

These three variables play a decisive role in the selection of one behavioral choice over another. Expectancy is the certainty that a person’s effort (E) will cause the accomplishment of the most wanted performance (P) objectives.

Low expectancy arises when aims and objectives are set extraordinarily high or performance expectations are complicated. Instrumentality is the certainty that an employee will be given a prize if the required performance is delivered. This prize or compensation can be in a variety of forms.

It can be a pay raise, encouragement, promotion, appreciation, recognition, or a feeling of achievement.  Valence means how important an employee or worker personally believes the reward is. It is defined as the value a team member places on the rewards of a result.

Valence is described by the extent to which an employee considers a certain result or end product valuable. This is not the real satisfactory level but the anticipated contentment of a specific result.

The main idea of Vroom’s Expectancy Theory is that employees will increase and improve their amount of efforts if they believe that the reward system is satisfactory enough.

Analysis of Expectancy Theory

A popular technique for analyzing and promoting employee behavior in a business is the Expectancy Theory of Motivation.

The theory functions primarily on three levels: expectation, instrumentality, and valence. Each of these contributes to understanding how someone is motivated in any role inside a firm (Organizational Behavior, 2013).

The individual’s assessment of whether or not their efforts will result in what they anticipate, and if they may result in more, is known as their expectation.

The job that is assigned to the individual, how challenging it will be to complete the assignment, and their degree of confidence all play a role in the effort-performance connection.

There are several organizational contexts in which it may be said that employees will alter their level of performance or effort if they believe they will be rewarded appropriately.

Employee effort will result in performance, and performance will result in incentives, according to the premise. In that they aim to treat their staff positively and encouragingly and manage favorable outcomes, Intel is a prime example of a company that might be said to adhere to Vroom’s thesis.

An worldwide business called Intel started making memory-based devices in 1968. They unveiled the first microprocessor in 1971. According to statistics, they employed 82,500 people globally in 2010 and are one of the most admired employers in the world. Intel places a lot of emphasis on its workers.

It may be claimed that by implementing a program to draw in, keep, and reward the employees who drive the business’s long-term expansion and profitability, they have implemented Vroom’s expectation.

Intel Vroom Theory

Giving its people the resources they need to succeed, according to Intel, is the only way to obtain results from them. According to the hypothesis, there is a clear connection between effort and performance; hence, an employee is less likely to perform if they fear their efforts won’t be acknowledged.

According to the notion, it’s crucial to comprehend an employee’s skill level in addition to the fact that they work in a dynamic setting that changes quickly. Intel agrees.

They created an internal Intel university as a result, which offers a thorough development curriculum, new employee onboarding, and training programs for current employees hoping to advance and receive a promotion.

Throughout their employment with the firm, employees have the chance to advance their skills at the university, whether they want to sharpen their management abilities, advance their IT capabilities, or learn specifics about the business. The most recent academic materials, from technology to leadership, are available online through the university.

By giving employees the chance to attend personal development seminars, Intel emphasizes the link between individual wellbeing and performance. It goes without saying that happier workers will work harder.

The various forms of employee incentive that Intel utilizes, including internal considerations like bonuses and external factors like job satisfaction, all have distinct meanings to the individual.

Intel has emphasized that it’s critical to ascertain, early in an employee’s career, just what that person believes to be an acceptable incentive. If the incentive is successful in motivating the person in the first place, rewarding performance will have an impact on performance level.

Depending on the talents each person brings to the work and how well they can do the assignment, Intel has developed various linkages between performance and rewards for different people.


It is evident from the study that although being developed in 1964, Vroom’s Expectancy Model is still relevant in today’s culture.

It is a fairly well-known process theory of motivation that is employed by several multinational corporations all over the world, including Intel, which was previously extensively discussed. However, no hypothesis is completely accurate.

The preceding critical analysis points us that Vroom’s initial expectation model has received a great deal of criticism and that several theorists have sought to enlarge it throughout time.

The Vrooms Theory has been influential in management practice throughout history, the twenty-first century, and will do so in the years to come.

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