Essay on Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation

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Essay on Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Victor Harold‏ Vroom is a business school professor at the Yale School of Management. He made a remarkable contribution in the field of organizational behavior with his research regarding the motivational significance of employees. In the year 1964, Victor Vroom introduced a theory called the “Expectancy Theory” with the help of his research study that took years to complete. The Expectancy Theory is also known as the Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory or VIE Theory. This theory focuses on the motivational aspect of employees behind every decision making process.

This theory is very helpful in organizational management practices. The theory focuses on using incentive, encouragement and inspiration as a technique to generate better outcomes from the project teams. Expectancy theory explains the employee’s psychological course of action about preferences and choices. The theory explains the thinking procedures that any employee or worker undergoes while making decisions. Victor Vroom put emphasis on the requirement that enterprises must associate rewards directly with a team’s performance. He also highlighted that the rewarding system must be corruption free so that the deserving candidates receive incentives and not the incompetent ones.  Victor Vroom formulated an expression to explain the motivation an individual feels under any given circumstance:

Motivation = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valence

These three variables play a decisive role in the selection of one behavioral choice over another. Expectancy is the certainty that a person’s effort (E) will cause the accomplishment of most wanted performance (P) objectives. Low expectancy arises when aims and objectives are set extremely high or when performance expectations are made very complicated. Instrumentality is the certainty that an employee will be given a prize if the required performance is delivered. This prize or compensation can be in a variety of forms. It can be a pay raise, encouragement, promotion, appreciation, recognition or a feeling of achievement.  The valence means how important an employee or worker personally believes the reward is. It is defined as the value a team member places on the rewards of a result. Valence is described by the extent to which an employee considers a certain result or end product valuable. This is not the real satisfactory level but the anticipated contentment of a specific result. The main idea of Vroom’s Expectancy Theory is that employees will increase and improve their amount of efforts if they believe that the rewarding system is satisfactory enough.

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